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Topik Bahasan : Rockylinux Server

Cara Install Apache Di Rockylinux 9 Server

Cara Install Apache Di Rockylinux 9 Server

Setelah anda berhasil membuat droplet server di digitalocen, anda bisa menggunakannya untuk membuat website atau blog. Untuk menjalankan website di hosting server, anda memerlukan web server. Di artikel ini saya akan menjelaskan cara install apache di rockylinux 9 server. Apache merupakan web server yang cukup populer dan banyak digunakan di banyak penyedia layanan web hosting.

Perlu anda ketahui bahwa saya membuat tutorial ini menggunakan hosting server dari layanan hosting digitalocean. Jika anda menggunakan layanan hosting server selain digitalocean, anda bisa menerapkan tutorial ini untuk menginstall apache di rockylinux 9 server.

Untuk pengguna rockylinux server, berikut ini spesifikasi server yang disarankan.

  • Ram minimal 2 Gigabyte.
  • Memiliki akses root atau user yang memiliki akses privilege sebagai root.
  • Memiliki ruang penyimpanan yang cukup kurang lebih 5 Gigabyte, bisa harddisk atau ssd.

Jika spesifikasi rockylinux server yang anda sewa seperti tersebut di atas. Mari lanjut untuk menggunakan hosting server tersebut.

Install Apache Di RockyLinux 9 Server

Untuk menginstall apache di rockylinux 9 server, ikuti langkah-langkah berikut di bawah ini.

  1. Login ke droplet server atau hosting server.
ssh -i opensshkey root@ipdropletserver
  1. Update Rockylinux 9 server. Untuk update rockylinux 9 server, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut. Kemudian tekan enter.
sudo dnf update
  1. Install apache. Untuk menginstall apache, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut. Kemudian tekan enter.
sudo dnf install httpd
  1. Jalankan apache web server. Untuk menjalankan apache, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut. Kemudian tekan enter.
sudo systemctl start httpd
  1. Agar apache bisa langsung berjalan walaupun setelah rockylinux 9 server direstart, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut. Kemudian tekan enter.
sudo systemctl enable httpd
  1. Jika anda memerlukan untuk merestart apache web server, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut. Kemudian tekan enter.
sudo systemctl restart httpd
  1. Untuk melihat status apache web server, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut. Kemudian tekan enter.
sudo systemctl status httpd
  1. Untuk menghentikan apache web server, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut. Kemudian tekan enter.
sudo systemctl stop httpd

Akses Website Yang Menggunakan Apache Web Server

Untuk mengakses website anda yang barusan diinstall apache web server, ikuti langkah-langkah berikut di bawah ini.

  • Buka aplikasi browser. Misalnya firefox, chrome atau lainnya.
  • Ketikkan alamat website : http://ip-address-hosting-server, kemudian tekan enter. Berikut ini tampilan website anda yang barusan anda buat menggunakan apache web server di rockylinux 9 server.


Cara Install Apache Di Rockylinux 9 Server

Jika anda melihat halaman tersebut seperti gambar di atas, itu artinya apache web server berhasil diinstall di web hosting Rockylinux 9 server.


Konfigurasi apache Web Server

Berikut ini penjelasan singkat tentang konfigurasi apache web server di rockylinux 9 server.

  1. Untuk rockylinux 9 server, konfigurasi apache secara umum yaitu httpd.conf terletak di folder /etc/httpd/conf. Untuk melihat konfigurasi apache tersebut, ketik sintak baris perintah berikut kemudian tekan enter.
sudo nano /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
  1. Secara default, berikut ini konfigurasi apache web server di Rockylinux 9 server.
#
# This is the main Apache HTTP server configuration file.  It contains the
# configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
# See <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/> for detailed information.
# In particular, see 
# <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/directives.html>
# for a discussion of each configuration directive.
#
# See the httpd.conf(5) man page for more information on this configuration,
# and httpd.service(8) on using and configuring the httpd service.
#
# Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
# what they do.  They're here only as hints or reminders.  If you are unsure
# consult the online docs. You have been warned.  
#
# Configuration and logfile names: If the filenames you specify for many
# of the server's control files begin with "/" (or "drive:/" for Win32), the
# server will use that explicit path.  If the filenames do *not* begin
# with "/", the value of ServerRoot is prepended -- so 'log/access_log'
# with ServerRoot set to '/www' will be interpreted by the
# server as '/www/log/access_log', where as '/log/access_log' will be
# interpreted as '/log/access_log'.

#
# ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
# configuration, error, and log files are kept.
#
# Do not add a slash at the end of the directory path.  If you point
# ServerRoot at a non-local disk, be sure to specify a local disk on the
# Mutex directive, if file-based mutexes are used.  If you wish to share the
# same ServerRoot for multiple httpd daemons, you will need to change at
# least PidFile.
#
ServerRoot "/etc/httpd"

#
# Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or
# ports, instead of the default. See also the <VirtualHost>
# directive.
#
# Change this to Listen on a specific IP address, but note that if
# httpd.service is enabled to run at boot time, the address may not be
# available when the service starts.  See the httpd.service(8) man
# page for more information.
#
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
Listen 80

#
# Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
#
# To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a DSO you
# have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
# directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
# Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
# to be loaded here.
#
# Example:
# LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
#
Include conf.modules.d/*.conf

#
# If you wish httpd to run as a different user or group, you must run
# httpd as root initially and it will switch.  
#
# User/Group: The name (or #number) of the user/group to run httpd as.
# It is usually good practice to create a dedicated user and group for
# running httpd, as with most system services.
#
User apache
Group apache

# 'Main' server configuration
#
# The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
# server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
# <VirtualHost> definition.  These values also provide defaults for
# any <VirtualHost> containers you may define later in the file.
#
# All of these directives may appear inside <VirtualHost> containers,
# in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
# virtual host being defined.
#

#
# ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
# e-mailed.  This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
# as error documents.  e.g. admin@your-domain.com
#
ServerAdmin root@localhost

#
# ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify itself.
# This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
# it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
#
# If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address here.
#
#ServerName www.example.com:80

#
# Deny access to the entirety of your server's filesystem. You must
# explicitly permit access to web content directories in other 
# <Directory> blocks below.
#
<Directory />
    AllowOverride none
    Require all denied
</Directory>

#
# Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
# particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
# you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
# below.
#

#
# DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
# documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
# symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
#
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"

#
# Relax access to content within /var/www.
#
<Directory "/var/www">
    AllowOverride None
    # Allow open access:
    Require all granted
</Directory>

# Further relax access to the default document root:
<Directory "/var/www/html">
    #
    # Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
    # or any combination of:
    #   Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
    #
    # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
    # doesn't give it to you.
    #
    # The Options directive is both complicated and important.  Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/core.html#options
    # for more information.
    #
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks

    #
    # AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
    # It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
    #   Options FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    #
    AllowOverride None

    #
    # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    #
    Require all granted
</Directory>

#
# DirectoryIndex: sets the file that Apache will serve if a directory
# is requested.
#
<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.html
</IfModule>

#
# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being 
# viewed by Web clients. 
#
<Files ".ht*">
    Require all denied
</Files>

#
# ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
# If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a <VirtualHost>
# container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
# logged here.  If you *do* define an error logfile for a <VirtualHost>
# container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
#
ErrorLog "logs/error_log"

#
# LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.
# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
# alert, emerg.
#
LogLevel warn

<IfModule log_config_module>
    #
    # The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
    # a CustomLog directive (see below).
    #
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common

    <IfModule logio_module>
      # You need to enable mod_logio.c to use %I and %O
      LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %I %O" combinedio
    </IfModule>

    #
    # The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
    # If you do not define any access logfiles within a <VirtualHost>
    # container, they will be logged here.  Contrariwise, if you *do*
    # define per-<VirtualHost> access logfiles, transactions will be
    # logged therein and *not* in this file.
    #
    #CustomLog "logs/access_log" common

    #
    # If you prefer a logfile with access, agent, and referer information
    # (Combined Logfile Format) you can use the following directive.
    #
    CustomLog "logs/access_log" combined
</IfModule>

<IfModule alias_module>
    #
    # Redirect: Allows you to tell clients about documents that used to 
    # exist in your server's namespace, but do not anymore. The client 
    # will make a new request for the document at its new location.
    # Example:
    # Redirect permanent /foo http://www.example.com/bar

    #
    # Alias: Maps web paths into filesystem paths and is used to
    # access content that does not live under the DocumentRoot.
    # Example:
    # Alias /webpath /full/filesystem/path
    #
    # If you include a trailing / on /webpath then the server will
    # require it to be present in the URL.  You will also likely
    # need to provide a <Directory> section to allow access to
    # the filesystem path.

    #
    # ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts. 
    # ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
    # documents in the target directory are treated as applications and
    # run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the
    # client.  The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias
    # directives as to Alias.
    #
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/var/www/cgi-bin/"

</IfModule>

#
# "/var/www/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
# CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
#
<Directory "/var/www/cgi-bin">
    AllowOverride None
    Options None
    Require all granted
</Directory>

<IfModule mime_module>
    #
    # TypesConfig points to the file containing the list of mappings from
    # filename extension to MIME-type.
    #
    TypesConfig /etc/mime.types

    #
    # AddType allows you to add to or override the MIME configuration
    # file specified in TypesConfig for specific file types.
    #
    #AddType application/x-gzip .tgz
    #
    # AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers uncompress
    # information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
    #
    #AddEncoding x-compress .Z
    #AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz
    #
    # If the AddEncoding directives above are commented-out, then you
    # probably should define those extensions to indicate media types:
    #
    AddType application/x-compress .Z
    AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz

    #
    # AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers":
    # actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
    # or added with the Action directive (see below)
    #
    # To use CGI scripts outside of ScriptAliased directories:
    # (You will also need to add "ExecCGI" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

    # For type maps (negotiated resources):
    #AddHandler type-map var

    #
    # Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
    #
    # To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
    # (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    AddType text/html .shtml
    AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml
</IfModule>

#
# Specify a default charset for all content served; this enables
# interpretation of all content as UTF-8 by default.  To use the 
# default browser choice (ISO-8859-1), or to allow the META tags
# in HTML content to override this choice, comment out this
# directive:
#
AddDefaultCharset UTF-8

<IfModule mime_magic_module>
    #
    # The mod_mime_magic module allows the server to use various hints from the
    # contents of the file itself to determine its type.  The MIMEMagicFile
    # directive tells the module where the hint definitions are located.
    #
    MIMEMagicFile conf/magic
</IfModule>

#
# Customizable error responses come in three flavors:
# 1) plain text 2) local redirects 3) external redirects
#
# Some examples:
#ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo."
#ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
#ErrorDocument 404 "/cgi-bin/missing_handler.pl"
#ErrorDocument 402 http://www.example.com/subscription_info.html
#

#
# EnableMMAP and EnableSendfile: On systems that support it, 
# memory-mapping or the sendfile syscall may be used to deliver
# files.  This usually improves server performance, but must
# be turned off when serving from networked-mounted 
# filesystems or if support for these functions is otherwise
# broken on your system.
# Defaults if commented: EnableMMAP On, EnableSendfile Off
#
#EnableMMAP off
EnableSendfile on

# Supplemental configuration
#
# Load config files in the "/etc/httpd/conf.d" directory, if any.
IncludeOptional conf.d/*.conf
  1. Untuk mengganti tampilan website anda, anda perlu memperhatikan file-file konfigurasi yang terletak di folder /etc/httpd/conf.d. Di folder tersebut terdapat 3 file konfigurasi yaitu autoindex.conf, userdir.conf dan welcome.conf.
  1. Sekarang edit file welcome.conf.
nano /etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf
  1. Kemudian cari baris berikut ini.
<LocationMatch "^/+$">
    Options -Indexes
    ErrorDocument 403 /.noindex.html
</LocationMatch>

<Directory /usr/share/httpd/noindex>
    AllowOverride None
    Require all granted
</Directory>

Alias /.noindex.html /usr/share/httpd/noindex/index.html
Alias /poweredby.png /usr/share/httpd/icons/apache_pb3.png
Alias /system_noindex_logo.png /usr/share/httpd/icons/system_noindex_logo.png
  1. Beri tanda pagar semua baris tersebut di atas, sehingga menjadi seperti berikut ini.
#<LocationMatch "^/+$">
#    Options -Indexes
#    ErrorDocument 403 /.noindex.html
#</LocationMatch>

#<Directory /usr/share/httpd/noindex>
#    AllowOverride None
#    Require all granted
#</Directory>

#Alias /.noindex.html /usr/share/httpd/noindex/index.html
#Alias /poweredby.png /usr/share/httpd/icons/apache_pb3.png
#Alias /system_noindex_logo.png /usr/share/httpd/icons/system_noindex_logo.png
  1. Restart apache.
systemctl restart httpd
  1. Setelah anda melakukan langkah di atas tersebut dari 1 sampai 2, sekarang lokasi folder root website anda terletak di folder /var/www/html. Buatlah file index.html di folder /var/www/html. Isi file index.html dengan tulisan "website".
nano /var/www/html/index.html
  1. Sekarang kunjung alamat website anda di http://ip-server. Berikut ini tampilan website anda sekarang.


Cara Install Apache Di Rockylinux 9 Server


File Log apache Web Server

Setiap kali website anda diakses oleh pengunjung, riwayat kunjungan pengunjung akan dicatat di file log di apache web server. Berikut ini keterangan berkaitan dengan file log untuk suatu website.

  • File log yang mencatat semua akses ke website disebut file access_log. Untuk rockelinux 9 server, file access log untuk apache terletak di file /var/log/httpd/access_log.
/var/log/httpd/access_log
  • File log yang mencatat adanya error atau gangguan yang berkaitan dengan website anda dicatat di file log yang disebut file error_log. Untuk rockelinux 9 server, file error log untuk apache terletak di file /var/log/httpd/error_log.
/var/log/httpd/error_log
  • Untuk melihat semua catatan riwayat pengunjung, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut kemudian tekan enter.
sudo tail /var/log/httpd/access_log
  • Untuk melihat semua catatan error, gangguan atau masalah di apache, ketikkan sintak baris perintah berikut kemudian tekan enter.
sudo tail /var/log/httpd/error_log

Demikian tutorial tentang cara install apache di rockylinux 9 server. Jika anda mau membuat website statis menggunakan rockylinux 9 server memakai apache web server, anda bisa mengupload semua file website statis ke dalam lokasi root yang sudah tersetting di dalam file konfigurasi apache.

Author: Ahmad

Saya seorang blogger yang belajar programming.

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